The normal heart is divided into two parts: the left and right, separated by a partition – a membrane. The right side of the heart receives non-oxygenated blood and sends it to the lungs. The oxygenated blood returns from the lungs and enters the left side of the heart, and from there it is sent to all organs. The septum prevents blood mixing. However, some children are born with a hole in the heart wall (on the top or bottom wall). The hole in the septum separating the upper chambers of the heart is known as the atrial septal defect (DMPP), and the holes in the lower part are the ventricular septal defect (VSD).
In both cases, the purified blood is mixed with oxygen-enriched blood. A large hole with DMPP can cause an overflow of the lungs with blood and complicate the work of the heart.
What causes a hole in the heart?
DMPP and VSD are congenital heart defects. Typical causes of a bore are:
- Genetics: a child has an increased risk of atrial septal defect if one of the parents has congenital heart disease.
- The presence of other genetic disorders: children with a hereditary disorder, such as Down syndrome, often have heart disease from birth.
- Smoking: children born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy are subject to various congenital heart defects.
What are the symptoms or signs?
Most children do not have any symptoms of DMPP. However, symptoms may appear at a more mature age – at 30 or even later. Signs of a DMP include:
- Heart murmur
- Shortness of breath, palpitations
- Bluish color
- Swelling of the feet, legs, or abdomen
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus manifest soon after the birth of the child – during the first few days, weeks or months. Symptoms include:
- Cyanosis, or bluish tint to skin, lips, and fingertips
- Fast breathing
- Poor appetite
- Swelling of the feet, legs, or abdomen
- Heart murmur (may be the only sign of a defect in some babies)
What tests are needed to confirm or exclude violations?
DMP and VSD are diagnosed in the following way:
- Physical examination: In this test the doctor listens to the heart and lungs with a stethoscope to detect heart murmurs.
- Echocardiography(EchoCG): The method gives a complete picture of the state of the heart: its anatomy, work, structures, contractility, painful changes, cardiac cycle and other characteristics. At the same time, the method is absolutely safe and atraumatic for the patient: there is no need to swallow the probe, there is no harmful radiation and the procedure is as comfortable as possible. EchoCG can be performed at any age, including a child in the womb, newborns, and pregnant women.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG): ECG is a recording of the electrical activity of the heart in the form of a curve. To take ECG readings, electrodes are placed on your body. To increase the permeability of electrical current under the electrodes, the diagnostician doctor lubricates it with a special gel. The procedure itself lasts a few minutes. Conduct research usually in the resting position, lying or sitting.
- Chest radiograph: A chest radiography is also refferes as chest x-ray. Its goal is to assess the pathology of organs located in this cavity and closely located anatomical structures. This type of X-ray is perhaps one of the most common X-ray studies.
- Heart catheterization: Heart catheterization is a diagnostic procedure that can detect a blockage or narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries. It provides information about the functioning of the heart, heart valves, and coronary arteries, with which you can prevent a heart attack or angina.
- Pulse Oximetry: A pulse oximeter is a microprocessor device that requires only minimal contact with the patient’s skin (neither punctures, nor catheterization, nor any other intervention is performed). A thin light beam penetrates the skin to the capillary layer. The spectrum of the reflected light varies depending on the oxygen saturation of the blood, which is registered by the built-in processor. In addition, the frequency of regular “flicker” of the spectrum due to pulse beats is recorded.
What treatment options are available to correct the disorder?
Many DMPPs are closed on their own during the first year of birth. On the basis of regular check-ups, the doctor may offer treatment in the case of a medium or large opening between the ages of two and five years. Treatment usually involves surgical procedures or catheterization to seal the opening:
Catheterization is performed under general anesthesia. The procedure involves the introduction of a catheter into the vein in the groin and passing upwards to the septum. The two small disks that are attached to the catheter are pushed out – and cover the hole between the atria of the heart. Over time, healthy tissue builds up around the device (six months).
Surgery – during the operation, the surgeon closes the hole with a special patch.
Defect of the interventricular septum is simply controlled if it does not cause any symptoms. In situations that require treatment, this is done using:
Additional nutrition – special feeding or nutrition for children who develop poorly. You may need breast milk, special supplements, use of a feeding tube or feeding bottles.
Surgery – Large VSD requires open heart surgery, which eliminates a hole in the septum.
Precautions are necessary to maintain health during treatment of the hole in the heart.
Children and adolescents should undergo regular medical check-ups after treatment of DMPP or DMHP in order to monitor the progress of healing. Adults undergoing treatment should follow the doctor’s recommendations before returning to their normal daily routine.
Do not self-medicate, in case of any health problem or any heart related problem, do consult with India’s best cradiologist.
By Amayra Gupta
who is a freelance writer and expert in health, fitness, beauty and etc.