Functional Programming Vs Object-Oriented Programming. Which is Best for Development Firm?

When you choose to start planning for the in-house programming for your business, you have two options for programming technique. The one which you select would impact your products and development. Approaches such as Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) and Functional Programming (FP) are very popular and have proponents.

In fact, most Software development companies follow these two strategies while their Application development, depending upon the project requirement.

In the debate between OOP and Functional programming, knowledge is the key thing. If you consider the philosophies behind the OOP vs Functional programming, then you will make an informed decision.

Object-oriented programming and functional programming have similar goals of developing the flexible programs that are convenient to understand and are free from the bugs but yet there are set of different approaches.

  • Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

– OOP is a paradigm that works under the idea of “objects” that consist of data in the form of fields called attributes and codes. It is in the form of procedures that are known as methods. OOP claims that it makes it easier to develop a program that works by grouping all the data and associates its behaviour at a single place called “Objects”.

– OOP consist of 4 basic key principles which are:

  1. Abstraction – showcases the essential information and hide the unnecessary details.
  2. Inheritance – helps in inheriting the functions (or methods), properties, and base fields of the class into the derived class.
  3. Polymorphism – helps to perform one task at a time in several different ways with the help of as overloading and overriding which is known as compile-time and run-time polymorphism.
  4. Encapsulation – allows hiding unrelated data from users and prevents unauthorized access.
  • Functional Programming (FP)

– Functional Programming is the process of building software which is by composing pure functions. Objects are immutable that means once something is created, it can’t be changed. Functional programming states that the data and behaviour should be kept apart from each other for proper clarity as these two are dissimilar things.

– FP consist of six concepts:

  1. Higher-order functions
  2. Purity
  3. Recursion
  4. Referential
  5. Strict and Lazy evaluation
  6. Type system

What are the Pros and Cons of Object-Oriented Programming?

The following are the pros and cons of the OOP.

– Pros:

  1. It allows parallel development
  2. The modular classes are more usable
  3. The coding is easier to maintain

– Cons:

  1. It can be inefficient
  2. It can be too scalable
  3. It can cause duplication

What are the Pros and Cons of Functional Programming?

The following are the pros and cons of the Functional Programming.

– Pros:

  1. Abstraction is powerful
  2. It’s inherently parallel
  3. It’s easily testable and debuggable
  4. Development is faster

– Cons:

  1. The difficulty of stateful programming
  2. The non-functionalities of computer
  3. Terminology problems
  4. Recursion issues

What are the key differences between Object-Oriented Programming and Functional Programming?

– OOP executes fewer operations with common behavior and different variants whereas FP executes different operations for which the data is fixed.

– OOP has a stateful programming model and FP has a stateless programming model.

– OOP supports abstraction over the data only but FP supports abstraction over the data and behavior.

– In OOP, Switch and if-else statements are used as conditional statements whereas, in FP, there’s no such conditional statement.

– An object in OOP is the primary manipulation unit but in FP, functions are the primary manipulated unit.

Which One is better? OOP or FP.

– OOP developers claim that OOP is better to approach while the FP team claims that FP is better.

– It is believed that both, object-oriented programming and functional programming are core essential paradigms that share the exact goals of the development of more understandable and error-free programs. OOP follows the imperative programming model based on the set of primitives that programming language offers. FP, on the other hand, is connected to the declarative style which implies that you define what are things need to be done without specifying how to do that.

– It is seen that the consensus that OOP and FP are efficient in their own situation.

Which Programming Languages will be Dominating in 2020?

Comparing all the programming languages is a very complicated thing. A programming language allows humans to instruct and control machines. So, there are many ways this language will make this process stronger and simpler. There are plenty of programming languages that are used in Software development companies currently and maybe a few languages will get outdated in a couple of years and some are one which will prove its existence. The choices purely depend largely on hinges on-demand and preferences. If there is less demand, then the providers will also stop providing services.

Java programming language is one of the languages that will be dominating in 2020. It remains one of the best programming languages recommended to budding programmers. This is one of the programming languages are those in rare demand, are stable, and can often lead to employment opportunity.

Some of the Top Programming Language for 2020,

  • JAVA

– Java is one of the most famous programming languages used by the developer. Its main purpose was for the development of server-side applications to mobile apps and video games that can be deployed in a cross-platform computing environment. It is the base of Android app development and even anyone interested in making a career in Android app development than learning JAVA is the core thing.

– It is also used in the development of web and desktop apps that would benefit that It is just to write it once and it can be compiled anywhere in the programming language. It is easier to learn and skill sought after by employers around the world.

– Currently, it is going to be the top development language for Android and is complemented by Kotlin which addresses its issues and resolves the issues on its own.

  • Python

– The two main things about Python are its clean code and overall better organization for many developers. It is easy to grasp and not that difficult to understand. It is going to be the best language for future technologies such as Machine Learning or Data Science.

– It has an active community that which shares open-source modules, framework, and libraries which will serve to make the development easier. It is expected to let Python technology to survive for years.

  • C/C++

– C language was being found in 1972. It is the oldest and most enduring development language still in existence. But in today’s world in 2020, C is the originator of Java, Python and C++ are the still set for any developer up for learning those languages.

– Another advantage includes the relatively faster and more adaptable application of C for the initiator embedded system and it is more accurate computing.

– Whereas, C++ is a direct offshoot. Majorly it is used in the development of video games. It performs nicely when there are large data management and high-performance language. It has been noticed that it has decreased the rate of popularity. Nonetheless, it is the only primary language used in IoT which is the most demanding technology in today’s time.

  • PHP

– Another language that dominates the internet which is the form of dynamic data-heavy website and app development is PHP. WordPress and Facebook are the bigger contributions of PHP. It’s an open-source language and also it is considered as slow in terms of web development when it is compared to its peers.

– It is not a secure programming language but it has a large open-source software community to back it up. It is easy to learn and takes minimal time investment and rises the employment opportunity for the development of web applications, content management systems, and eCommerce applications.

  • Kotlin:

– There is only one language which is a worthy challenger and it is entitled “Best program language”. Most of the developers choose to use Kotlin. The core thing in Android development is the Kotlin programming language and it is the first Android-centric language in history. It is interoperable with JAVA makes Kotlin great in its place. It provides the developer the exact need and wants while it is being object-oriented, with its programming features. It is easy to learn, and developers should certainly consider it to add it to the list of programming languages.

How should you choose programming language for software development career?

In this fast-changing technological world, it is very important to identify the best programming language that gives you the best interest of learning and growing in your professional career. These days as you can observe the various shifts are happening in technologies. Several programming languages are being used in Software Development companies for their web development process. Hence they always keep an eye on the candidates with good programming skills and hire them for their organization.

People lack the ability to choose the right programming language for their careers. They are not aware of the necessary information and in-depth knowledge of it. Hence it becomes a major obstacle for them to choose the right one.

Be specific about your area of interest that you really love to do. Decide what you want to study then build and contribute your dedication towards that language to learn.

It is hard enough to decide which programming language you should choose to start getting a general idea about programming languages. Let’s take an example you want to build web apps, great then search the languages used to make the web apps and you find PHP seems popular but Ruby also. Developers have options either he/she can go with front-end, back-end developer, or with the full-slack developing path. For each path, there is a particular language to learn.

Apart from your mind-set and personality that is basically lifts you to high thinking. Choose the right kind of framework of your goals, practice, and learn the tricks behind it. You can learn anything on the internet and most of it is free. If get any problem, then try to solve it because that will train your mind to look for a solution. Think scenario of different programming language code and dive to understand it at a deeper level.

Work on technical skills like try to grab the concept of the version control system, knowing the basics of using Git. You should know how to create repositories, edit and commit code, how to branch and merge effectively as part of a project workflow by using Git. Acquire practical issue solving skills. Learn the basics of HTML and CSS, deep understanding of browser-specific tricks and tags, but rather thinking in terms of semantic document mark-up and knowing how to separate document structure from presentation.

Acquire the knowledge about developer toolkits such as IDEs, editors, and CLI tools because these tools exit to manipulate source code that basically makes a programmer like easier. As a developer, you should understand the concept of a regular expression that is basically programmers use it to find a pattern in the text strings. SQL is a declarative language you should understand the basic database normalization and to be able to do SELECTs, INSERTs, UPDATEs, and DELETEs.

To become a competent programmer, you should develop your mind-set, habits, and soft skills. You should also learn how to communicate with fellow software developers, how to minimize errors in their work. Clear and concise written communication because you have to write release notes for your projects.

Conclusion

To become a good software developer, you have to regularly update yourself about trending technologies in the market. It is very important to know about the latest technologies and try to be fluent in a particular programming language.

It is quite obvious that certain programming languages do manage to adapt and survive with the help of legacy programming, a large community, and regular updates and improvements. Even so, it also can’t be denied that new languages like Kotlin are proving themselves worthy of challenging even the top development languages of the past.

So, to conclude, the decision falls under the court of developers to choose which programming language concept makes their development more productive and easier.


Kapil Panchal

By Kapil Panchal
I am working as a Digital Marketing Manager in a reputed Custom Software Development Company. Being a technical writing enthusiast and a goal-oriented individual with honed communication skills, have served in the Information technology, Services, and Product industry. Having a high-energy level, I absolutely love what I do and I’m passionate about being better every day.

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